Concrete - a material used to construct buildings. It is used for construct the foundation, walls and roofs. Even the erection of a wooden building is not without pouring the foundation. Small artificial objects such as paving slabs, garden vases, urns, baluster, and sometimes even countertops for kitchen tables, make concrete also. It is important to know how to perform calculations of concrete.
Modern technology make the concrete very high quality. This artificial material in terms of its strength is along with natural marble and granite. Although it is not as aesthetic as natural materials from it, unlike natural stones, not out background radiation, and beautiful appearance, grant using the newest processing technologies. During construction you can make concrete with their hands or buy construction materials to finished composition. Plants for the manufacture of concrete using different proportions of concrete for the foundation and its species - lightweight concrete, heavy and in some cases, especially heavy concrete. If you want to make concrete, you need to understand in what proportions to mix components.
In general, the composition of concrete is a mixture of cement and filler. So the main ingredients are:
- Filling (gravel, slag, pebbles, etc.).
Modern technology involving the use of special additives to provide concrete some unique properties.
Component ratio can be changed plasticity of concrete mixture - if you add more gravel composition will be tougher, if more sand - you get plastic. At the same time, the more sand is used, the greater the need to add cement to get the necessary class of concrete.
How important is the exact proportion of concrete? In the past, for the construction of houses widely used hewn limestone and, later, brick with dried in the sun or burnt in the fire clay. But in ancient Rome was known cement that is used for bonding of building materials in the construction of temples and palaces and city walls. Eventually mortars have been used more and more widely, including to fills, which are produced for the strength of cement and sand with the addition of gravel or crushed stone. Such a structure is called concrete, which is nothing like artificial stone.
The most common ratio of the components that make up the concrete ratio is 1: 3: 6 is one part of cement has three parts sand and six parts filler. Depending on how thick or liquid solution you need, add 0.5-1 of water. However, if you want a solution of the highest possible quality, make accurate calculation of the proportions of components, which will play a significant role linking density and properties of cement, filler and sand. Learn these features you can with the regulations attached to the building materials.
For example, the class B10 obtained by mixing cement, sand, gravel and water in proportions of 1: 4: 5.5: 0.5. A higher class B15 knead follows - 1: 3: 5: 0.5, in the above sequence of components.
Rubble and gravel are divided into groups by size fractions, a total of 4: 5 to 10 mm, 10 to 20 and followed by 20-40 and 40-70. You should use the biggest grain, but given that the latter group is used for heavy concrete in private construction sufficient to third. Note that using both the large-size fractions crushed to 40 mm, it is necessary that 20% of the grains are smaller.
The estimated value of concrete components
|Class of |
The massive structure,
|Surround composition |
in 10 liters of cement,
Sand, Gravel (L)
| Quantity of concrete
per 10 liters
of cement (l)
|B7,5||1: 4,6: 7,0||41: 61||78|
|В12,5||1: 3,5: 5,7||32: 50||64|
|B15||1: 2,8: 4,8||25: 42||54|
|B20||1: 2,1: 3,9||19: 34||43|
|B22,5||1: 1,9: 3,7||17: 32||41|
|B30||1: 1,2: 2,7||11: 24||31|
|B35||1: 1,1: 2,5||10: 22||29|
The optimum amount of water - 50%, or 200 kilograms of cement poured 100 liters of water, it is easiest to preliminary calculations, which included a calculator for concrete. But because the components are and filler (sand and gravel), dependence better calculate their account.